Carbon, 2D materials and nanotechnology
Raman spectroscopy is probably the most important analytical tool available for investigating the many different structures produced from carbon, and for studying the many 2D materials now known.
You can use Raman to identify all the forms of carbon, including graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNT), graphite, diamond, and diamond-like carbon (DLC). You can also study 2D materials such as MoS2, hBN, and WSe2.
The massive range of consumer products that use carbon-based materials—and the promise of 2D materials for future technologies—make these key application areas for Raman spectroscopy.
Analyse all the forms of carbon
Renishaw's Raman systems are being used to research, develop, and control the quality of carbon materials. You can determine:
- the number of graphene layers, and their defects, doping and strain
- Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) thickness and hybridised composition (sp2 and sp3)
- Carbon Nanotube (CNT) diameter and functionalisation
- diamond stress, purity and origin (synthetic or natural)
- the properties of C60 and other fullerenes
- the structural composition of amorphous carbons
Analyse monolayers and thin films
Some of the most interesting new materials consist of single, or just a few, atomic layers. The high sensitivity of Renishaw's Raman systems makes identifying and analysing them quick and easy.
Analyse CVD graphene grown on copper foils
Renishaw's LiveTrack™ focus-tracking technology maintains sample focus, even when mapping large areas that are not flat.
Renishaw can combine Raman analysis with scanning probe microscopes (such as atomic force microscopes). These systems add chemical analysis capabilities to the high spatial resolution topography and property information acquired by SPMs/AFMs. You can also use tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) to acquire nanometre-scale Raman chemical information.
All encompassing spectra
Renishaw's SynchroScan produces high-resolution wide-range spectra. Collecting data covering the entire Raman and photoluminescence range is simple and fast. For example, you can:
- see carbon nanotube radial-breathing modes (RBMs), with the G and 2D bands, together
- study photoluminescence features associated with defects in diamond, as well as its Raman spectrum
More signal, no damage
Some thin carbon films, such as DLC, can be damaged by high laser power densities. With Renishaw's line-focus laser illumination technology, power densities are reduced, but total laser power is retained. You can collect high quality data rapidly, without damaging your samples.
Renishaw has over 20 years experience providing systems to verify the quality of carbon materials. Its systems are used worldwide to quickly and accurately check the quality of materials.
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Application note: Analyse graphene with the inVia Raman microscope
With so many unique properties, working with graphene can be challenging. Whether it is large films or small discrete flakes, Renishaw’s inVia confocal Raman microscope gives you reliable results, quickly and easily.
Watch a movie
StreamHR Rapide - graphene
Using a Renishaw inVia confocal Raman microscope and WiRE™ software to image graphene. The image build up is shown at true data collection speed using StreamHR Rapide. The analysis clearly shows monolayer and multilayer graphene. A second image shows defects in the graphene.
The benefits of using Raman spectroscopy to study graphene
Professor Robert J Young of the National Graphene Institute and School of Materials, University of Manchester discusses using Raman Spectroscopy to study graphene.
Find out more
The Biomechanics and Biomimetics Research Laboratory at the University of Colorado Boulder uses a Renishaw inVia™ confocal Raman microscope to characterise biological tissues and biomaterials. The system has been interfaced with a nanoindenter system from Hysitron Inc, Minneapolis, USA, to provide combined chemical and mechanical information on samples.
Renishaw's inVia is used at the University of Duisburg, in Germany, to study two-dimensional materials
The Department of Experimental Physics at the University of Duisburg in Germany uses Renishaw's inVia confocal Raman microscope to study two dimensional materials such as graphene and molybdenum disulphide.
New Plasma Technologies (NPT), based in Moscow, Russia, uses a Renishaw inVia confocal Raman microscope for investigating the structure and chemical properties of materials, non-destructively.
Founded in 1839, Boston University has over 33,000 students. The Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering houses the Optical Characterization and Nanophotonics (OCN) laboratory. Here, research focuses on developing, and applying, advanced optical characterization techniques to the study of solid-state and biological phenomena, at the nanoscale.
Dr Cinzia Casiraghi is a Reader in Graphene and Carbon Nanostructures, in the School of Chemistry, at the University of Manchester, UK. She runs a research group, the Casiraghi Group, which uses Raman spectroscopy to derive quantitative information on the properties and structure of carbon nanostructures.
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To find out more about this application area, or an application that isn't covered here, contact our applications team.