Carbon and nanotechnology
Raman spectroscopy is probably the most important analytical tool available for investigating the many different structures produced from carbon.
You can use Raman to identify all the forms, including graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNT), graphite, diamond, and diamond-like carbon (DLC).
The massive range of consumer products that use carbon-based materials—and the promise of carbon materials for future technologies—make this a key application area for Raman spectroscopy.
Analyse all the forms of carbon
Renishaw's Raman systems are being used to research, develop, and control the quality of carbon materials. You can determine:
- the number of graphene layers, and their defects, doping and strain
- Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) thickness and hybridised composition (sp2 and sp3)
- Carbon Nanotube (CNT) diameter and functionalisation
- diamond stress, purity and origin (synthetic or natural)
- the properties of C60 and other fullerenes
- the structural composition of amorphous carbons
Analyse monolayers and thin films
Some of the most interesting forms of carbon consist of single, or just a few, atomic layers. The high sensitivity of Renishaw's Raman systems makes identifying and analysing them quick and easy.
Renishaw can combine Raman analysis with scanning probe microscopes (such as atomic force microscopes). These systems add chemical analysis capabilities to the high spatial resolution topography and property information acquired by SPMs/AFMs. You can also use tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) to acquire nanometre-scale Raman chemical information.
All encompassing spectra
Renishaw's SynchroScan produces high-resolution wide-range spectra. Collecting data covering the entire Raman and photoluminescence range is simple and fast. For example, you can:
- see carbon nanotube radial-breathing modes (RBMs), with the G and 2D bands, together
- study photoluminescence features associated with defects in diamond, as well as its Raman spectrum
More signal, no damage
Some thin carbon films, such as DLC, can be damaged by high laser power densities. With Renishaw's line-focus laser illumination technology, power densities are reduced, but total laser power is retained. You can collect high quality data rapidly, without damaging your samples.
Renishaw has over 20 years experience providing systems to verify the quality of carbon materials. Its systems are used worldwide to quickly and accurately check the quality of materials.
Download an application note
Application note: Analyse graphene with the inVia Raman microscope
With so many unique properties, working with graphene can be challenging. Whether it is large films or small discrete flakes, Renishaw’s inVia confocal Raman microscope gives you reliable results, quickly and easily.
Watch a movie
Movie: StreamLineHR Rapide - graphene
Using a Renishaw inVia confocal Raman microscope and WiRE™ software to image graphene. The image build up is shown at true data collection speed using StreamLineHR Rapide. The analysis clearly shows monolayer and multilayer graphene. A second image shows defects in the graphene.
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To find out more about this application area, or an application that isn't covered here, contact our applications team.